One of the most important things you can do for your baby is breast feed him. Breast milk is important because:
1. It is species appropriate milk. Human milk is meant for human babies.
2. It contains exactly the right levels of nutrients that he needs, unlike formula which is cow's milk and tailored to a calf.
3. It contains long chain fatty acids essential for human brain growth, not included in most formulas.
4. It contains antibodies to disease and white blood cells for the immune system, not present in formula.
5. It fulfils a baby's biological need to breast feed from it's mother and helps to safeguard the baby's emotional health throughout life.
6. Breast feeding mums don't get as much breast cancer as mums who have never breast fed.
One of the reasons we now have 1 in 3 people affected by cancer is that we are seeing a whole generation of people who were brought up on formula milk.
A few years ago immunology student, Anders Hakansson1, of Lund University, Sweden, was experimenting by mixing human milk, cancer cells and bacteria. To his surprise the cancer cells were "acting up". Their volume was decreasing and their nuclei shrinking. Hakansson's supervisor, Catharina Svanborg, quickly recognized that the cancer cells were committing suicide. The phenomenon of apoptosis, whereby the body rids itself of old and unnecessary cells was well known, however for this to occur with cancer cells was unknown as their usual pattern is to reproduce in an uncontrolled fashion. Something in the breastmilk caused the cancer cells to self-destruct. Svanborg and her team had already done extensive investigation in the ability of breastmilk to protect the gut lining from invasive bacteria such as pneumococcus that causes the increased rates of upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media in children not breastfed. And so they began to track down the cancer-killing component in breastmilk. Then in 1995 they reported2 that the protein alpha-lactalbumin, or alpha-lac for short, was capable of targeting not only cancer cells but also other immature and rapidly growing cells, leaving stable, mature cells for growth and development. Alpha-lac's amazing capabilities may explain in part why formula fed infants suffer from increased rates of infectious diseases as well as childhood cancers.
1. Discover Magazine, June 30, 1999
2. Hakahsson, A. et al. Apoptosis induced by a human milk protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 92:8064-8068, 1995
Did you know that Albert Sabin, inventor of the oral polio vaccine, did the first study on the anti-polio properties of breast milk? He infected mice with polio and then took breast milk from 71 American women and fed it to the mice. The breast milk had an 84% success rate at neutralising polio. (Albert Sabin and Howard Fieldsteel, 'Anti-poliomyelitic Activity of Human and Bovine Colostrum and Milk', Journal of Pediatrics, 29 (1962).
According to the journal of epidemiology, breast milk protects against HIB for up to 10 years after you have stopped breast feeding.
'For each week of breast feeding, the protection improved.' (Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, 26: 443-450).
Tropical Pediatrics also found significant amounts of antibodies in breast milk to whooping cough, HIB, strep B infection and meningitis.
'Samples may indicate a protective role for breast milk against the four infections of early childhood.' Tropical Pediatrics, 1989, 4: 226-232.
Fatality from measles in third world children was REDUCED BY ONE THIRD in breast fed children, according to:
17. Lepage P. Munyakazi C, Hennart P. Breast feeding and hospital mortality in children from Rwanda. Lancet 1981;i:40911.
In a study in Brazil, dehydrating diarrhoea (defined by the presence of a persistent skinfold plus at least two other signs of dehydration) was 6.0 times more frequent among non-breastfed infants than among exclusively breastfed infants. If a child already had diarrhoea, the risk of developing dehydration was 3.3 times greater for the nonbreastfed infant.
Fuchs SC. Risk factors for dehydrating diarrhea: a case-control study. Ph.D. thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1993.
Victora CG, Fuchs SC, Kirkwood BR, Lombardi C, Barros FC. Breastfeeding, nutritional status and other prognostic factors for dehydration among young children with diarrhoea: a casecontrol study. Bull WHO 1992;70:467-75.
Epidemiologic studies show that breastfeeding protects against shigellosis and cholera. Breastmilk also contains antibodies against a large number of other gastrointestinal pathogens. It also protects against neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.
Hanson LA, Ashraf R. Carlsson B. Mattsby-Baltzer I, Motas C, Hahn-Zoric M, Mata L, Herias V, Cruz JR, Lindblad BS, Karlberg J, Jalil F. The Second John Soothill Lecture: breastfeeding, infections and immunology. In: Chandra RK, ed. Nutrition and immunology. St. John's, Canada: ARTS Biomedical Publishers and Distributors, 1992:45-60.
Lucal A, Cole TJ. Breast milk and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Lancet 1990;336:1519-23
In Rwanda non-breastfed children were twice as likely as breastfed children to die of pneumonia.
Lepage P. Munyakazi C, Hennart P. Breast feeding and hospital mortality in children from Rwanda. Lancet 1981;i:40911.
The German Study of Sudden Infant Death is a case-control study of 333 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome and 998 age-matched controls.
RESULTS. A total of 49.6% of cases and 82.9% of controls were breastfed at 2 weeks of age. Exclusive breastfeeding at 1 month of age halved the risk, partial breastfeeding at the age of 1 month also reduced the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, but after adjustment this risk was not significant. Being exclusively breastfed in the last month of life/before the interview reduced the risk, as did being partially breastfed. Breastfeeding survival curves showed that both partial breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were associated with a reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS. This study shows that breastfeeding reduced the risk of sudden infant death syndrome by ~50% at all ages throughout infancy.
Source: PEDIATRICS Vol. 123 No. 3 March 2009, pp. e406-e410.
HIV can be transmitted from mother to her child through nursing. But a surprising ingredient in an HIV-positive mother's milk may protect her baby against infection.
Researchers at Duke University have discovered an antibody in the breast milk of HIV-infected mothers that neutralizes the virus and prevents it from passing to their children.
The antibody may explain why surprisingly few breastfed infants get HIV from their mothers.
Source: Daily RX, 26th May 2012.
A paper about maternal antibodies (through placenta and breast milk) states:
'Pertussis notification data from the prevaccine era provide indirect evidence that maternal antibodies provide short lived protection against fatal pertussis by demonstrating that the rate of pertussis deaths in the first month of life was approximately one-third of that in the second and third months of life.24 In contrast, pertussis surveillance data in the vaccine era no longer demonstrate a substantial difference in pertussis-related mortality between the first and second months of life (Table 1). 25 This could be the consequence of reduced levels of circulation of Bordetella pertussis in young women of childbearing age after the introduction of mass immunization.'
So women who had had pertussis as children used to be able to confer transplacental immunity to their babies which would protect them in the vulnerable neonatal period, leading to a lower death rate from pertussis in the first month of life which was lower than it is now. After vaccination of mothers, the number of babies dying in the first month increased as a result of their vaccinated mothers having a reduced ability to confer immunity to them. This means that vaccination is destroying natural immunity and actually putting newborns at INCREASED RISK of dying of pertussis.
Although this review stated that transplacental immunity only lasted a month, other studies say it lasts longer (and this review in particular was advocating vaccination of mothers so that should be taken into consideration when reading it).
Colostrum samples from Indonesian mothers were assayed for antibodies which agglutinate Bordetella pertussis and for antibodies to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor of B. pertussis. Agglutinins were assayed by a microtiter method, and 36 of 58 samples tested (62%) had titers above 1:10 (range, less than 1:10 to 1:160). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected anti-filamentous hemagglutinin in 39 of 60 samples (65%) and anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor in 26 of 60 samples assayed (43%). A total of 52 samples (87%) were positive for at least one of these antibodies. Pooled colostrum samples were separated by affinity chromatography into fractions enriched secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) or IgG and examined for their ability to passively protect suckling mice from aerosol challenge with B. pertussis. Samples (160 micrograms of protein) were given intraperitoneally 90 min before challenge. Death, rate of gain in body weight, and leukocytosis were used as indicators of illness. Colostrum containing anti-lymphocytosis-promoting factor or agglutinins was protective, whereas colostrum lacking these but containing anti-filamentous hemagglutinin gave little protection. The sIgA-enriched and IgG-enriched fractions appeared to be equal in their ability to protect against respiratory challenge with B. pertussis.
Source: Infect Immun. 1985 February; 47(2): 441–445. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC263189/
Objective: To analyze anti-rotavirus antibodies in human milk in order to determine their isotypes and neutralizing activity on rotavirus strains representing different viral serotypes.
Methods: One hundred seventy-three milk samples (65 colostrum, 55 transitional milk and 53 mature milk) obtained from 65 mothers were analyzed along with 49 serum samples collected just before delivery. Total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rotavirus-specific IgA and immunoglobulins G (IgG) antibodies were determined in milk and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutralizing activity was evaluated by an immunoperoxidase focus reduction assay. Milk IgA was purified by binding to the lectin jacalin, elution and ultrafiltration.
Results: Total IgA antibodies were detected in all serum and milk samples analyzed. IgA levels decreased sharply during the replacement of colostrum by transitional milk, and more gradually from transitional to mature milk. These differences in IgA concentration during the 3 periods were statistically significant. Anti-rotavirus antibodies detected in human milk were exclusively of the IgA type, whereas both IgA and IgG anti-rotavirus antibodies were present in serum samples. Both milk and serum samples showed in vitro neutralization of the infectivity of rotavirus strains SA11, Wa and VA70, this activity being stronger toward the human rotavirus strain Wa. No correlation was however found between the inhibitory effect on rotavirus and the concentrations of IgA in human milk and serum samples.
Conclusion: Anti-rotavirus antibodies are only partly responsible for the neutralizing activity detected in milk and serum. This result suggests that other components possessing suppressive activity against rotavirus must also be present.
Although acquisition of anti-pertussis antibodies by the newborn via placental transfer has been demonstrated, a subsequent recrudescence of pertussis infection is often observed, particularly in infants. The present study investigated the passive transfer of anti-pertussis IgG and IgA antibodies to term newborns and their ability to neutralize bacterial pathogenicity in an in vivo experimental model using mice intracerebrally challenged with viable Bordetella pertussis. Forty paired samples of maternal/umbilical cord sera and colostrum were obtained. Anti-pertussis antibodies were analysed by immunoenzymatic assay and by Immunoblotting. Antibody neutralizing ability was assessed through intracerebral B. pertussis challenges in mice. Anti-pertussis IgG titres were equivalent in both maternal and newborn sera (medians = 1:225 and 1:265), with a transfer rate of 118%. The colostrum samples had variable specific IgA titres (median = 1:74). The immunoblotting assays demonstrated identical recognition profiles of paired maternal and newborn serum pools but different bacterial recognition intensities by colostrum pools. In the animal model, significant differences were always observed when the serum and colostrum samples and pools were compared with the positive control (P < 0.05). Unlike samples with lower anti-pertussis titres, samples with high titres showed protective capacities above 50%. Pertussis-absorbed serum and colostrum pools protected 30% of mice and purified IgG antibodies protected 65%. Both pooled and single-sample protective abilities were correlated with antibody titres (P < 0.01). Our data demonstrated the effectiveness of anti-pertussis antibodies in bacterial pathogenesis neutralization, emphasizing the importance of placental transfer and breast-feeding in protecting infants against respiratory infections caused by Bordetella pertussis.
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Volume 72, Issue 1, pages 66–73, July 2010, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02410.x/fullhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02410.x/full
This is the text-only version of this page. Click here to see this page with graphics.
Edit this page | Manage website
Make Your Own Website: 2-Minute-Website.com