This new jab has replaced the old DPT/HIB and oral polio vaccines and has been designed for use against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio and Hib as an all in one injection.
This multiple vaccination will be given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age, the same as its predecessor. (1).
None of the DOH information I have read lists the ingredients of the new vaccine. However, I have looked at other manufacturers data sheets for DTaP and IPV vaccines and have included that here as they will be similar in composition.
DTaP contains: pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae types 2 and 3, diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, phenoxyethanol, aluminium and formaldehyde.
IPV contains: 3 types of Polio virus, human diploid cells, human albumin, formaldehyde, streptomycin, polymyxin, neomycin, phenoxyethanol, bovine serum.
Why the changes in the schedule?
The department of health think that IPV (inactivated, injectable) Polio vaccine is safer than OPV (oral) Polio vaccine because the chance of passing on Polio through inoculation is less than with the live oral type. (1).
The oral Polio vaccine was the only cause of Polio in America and other Western countries and on 20th June 1996 at an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, it was voted out.
On 18th September 1996, Dr. David Satcher of the CDC accepted the recommendations.
Lenita Shaefer, from the US, who contracted Polio from a vaccination in 1988, said
No one had the right to immunize me without my consent, now I am paralysed for life for something I never agreed to receive. Immunization without consent invades my right to privacy this insult is worsened by the fact that the only Polio in this country since 1979 has been caused by this vaccine.. (2).
In 2004 the JAMA wrote:
'The last case of poliomyelitis in the United States due to indigenously acquired wild poliovirus occurred in 1979; however, as a consequence of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use that began in 1961, an average of 9 cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) were confirmed each year from 1961 through 1989. To reduce the VAPP burden, national vaccination policy changed in 1997 from reliance on OPV to options for a sequential schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) followed by OPV. In 2000, an exclusive IPV schedule was adopted.'
From 1990 through 1999, 61 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were reported; 59 (97%) of these were VAPP (1 case per 2.9 million OPV doses distributed), 1 case was imported, and 1 case was indeterminate. Thirteen cases occurred during the 1997-1999 transitional policy period and were associated with the all-OPV schedule; none occurred with the IPV-OPV schedule. No cases occurred after the United States implemented the all-IPV policy in 2000. The last imported poliomyelitis case occurred in 1993 and the last case of VAPP occurred in 1999.
Conclusion The change in polio vaccination policy from OPV to exclusive use of IPV was successfully implemented; this change led to the elimination of VAPP in the United States.'
Whole cell pertussis vaccine was replaced with acellular (half-cell) vaccine, also for safety reasons as this is thought to cause less side-effects than the whole cell version.
So in theory the new jab should be safer and cut the number of vaccine-induced cases of Polio and brain damage.
The Department of Health told parents that the previous DPT/Hib and Polio vaccines were safe and now we are being told there is a safer one, which begs the question just how safe the old schedule was and whether we would indeed be given accurate safety information for the current vaccine.
The Department of Health denied any safety concern with DPT and in their leaflet, A Guide to Childhood Immunisations (1997) they state: In the 1970s a study was done which seemed to show a link between the whooping cough vaccine and a few babies who suffered brain damage. More recent and reliable studies have not confirmed this theory. yet they now recommend an acellular vaccine to reduce the risk of side-effects which they denied in the first place. As a parent myself, this does not give me any confidence in the recommendations. Their leaflets also did not list the ingredients of the vaccines or inform parents that there was mercury contained in them and it would have been only the individuals that knew of the data sheets that would have been aware that old style DPT/hib did contain mercury.
It is VAN UKs opinion that this does not represent informed consent, as the public were only given very partial information. The same applies to the new 5-in-1. There is no information on ingredients listed on the DOHs website, www.immunisation.nhs.uk. There is no information on safety studies and very limited information on side-effects.
The IPV was originally withdrawn from use for its possible links with childhood Leukaemia, which is why medics then favoured the OPV.
"Within a few years of the polio vaccine we started seeing some strange phenomena like the year before the first 300,000 doses were given in the United States childhood leukaemia had never struck in children under the age of two. One year after the first onslaught they had the first cases of children under the age of two that died of leukaemia........ Dr Herbert Radnor observed that in a small area of this little town, in an area where no cases of leukaemia had been expected or at the most one in 4 years according to previous statistics, they suddenly had a rash like an epidemic within a few blocks"---Dr Snead.
The IPV also has side-effects of a different nature.
Thimerosal (mercury) free vaccines have still been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury.
According to Francey Hood-Fysh, of Linn County Department of Health Services in the USA, "There is a trace of mercury in even the preservative-free. There is no vaccine at this time that doesn't contain at least a trace of the preservative."
Currently, paediatric flu, tetanus and diphtheria thimerosal free vaccines contain these trace amounts of mercury. (3).
Thimerosal is toxic; there is no safe level for humans.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, dropping a pin-head of mercury into 23 gallons of water would make it unsafe for human consumption.
"Think about the idea of injecting your own child with levels of mercury that are thirty to forty times what's considered safe for an adult," Dallas attorney Andy Waters said. "And, I think if any human being thinks about that very long, they recognize that this is something that never should have happened."
Dr. Boyd Haley is the Chairman of the Chemistry Department at the University of Kentucky. He's one of Americas leading experts on mercury poisoning and has studied Thimerosal in vaccines.
Thimerosal "is one of the most toxic compounds I know of," Haley said. "I can't think of anything that I know of is more lethal."
Just two years ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention did conduct a study, which showed that three-month-old babies exposed to just 63 micrograms of mercury - less than half of the aforementioned pin top - were two-and-a-half times more likely to develop autism.
The study is stamped "Confidential" and "Do Not Copy or Release." Siegel says it was never made public because it was just a draft.
"Until they're final, and are ready for publication, they're always considered a draft, not to be widely distributed," Siegel said. "This preliminary information could be distributed, and that could do harm."
So why was it marked 'Confidential, Do Not Release', rather than a simple 'Draft'?
"I think we're mincing words," Siegel said.
Subsequently, the CDC did release a report to the public, but the findings were much different. The new study was amended with different data which lowered the autism rate. (4).
WHAT MERCURY DOES TO THE BODY:
Mercury is considered the second most toxic substance known to man.
Mercury causes rapid degeneration of the neurite membrane of the brain.
Mercury reacts badly with aluminium, another compound present in some vaccines and in experiments, thimerosal killed off human brain neurons. All neurons were dead within 24 hours of exposure.
According to a Eli Lilly Manufacturers data sheet for thimerosal (1999) it is toxic and causes foetal abnormality, decreased infant survival (i.e., higher infant mortality rates) and abnormal changes to lung tissue. (5).
Would you want even trace amounts of that in your childs vaccine?
There was no information on any efficacy trial in any DOH literature that I have read, and none on their immunisation website.
However, vaccine-induced immunity is always temporary and wanes after varying periods of time. A Connaught IPV data sheet states that further recall doses need to be given every 10 years. (6).
Side-effects which are mentioned to parents by the DOH are: swelling and redness in 1 in 10 people, temperature, sickness, tiredness, headaches, diarrhoea, irritability, swollen lymph glands, severe swelling of upper arm, anaphylaxis.
1 in 1000 children are also reported to have suffered convulsions, being floppy and less responsive than usual (i.e. an altered state of consciousness) and an unusual high pitched cry. (7).
This high pitched cry they mention is known as the cri encephalique and is an indication of neurological irritation. The brain swells (encephalitis), causing an extremely painful headache which makes the baby cry in a high-pitched way. Encephalitis is sometimes mild and the baby can make a full recovery, and sometimes it can be fatal it depends on the severity of the swelling. However, vaccine-induced encephalitis is well documented in medical literature and is somewhat downplayed in parental information leaflets.
If your baby is vaccinated and s/he develops a high-pitched cry, you should go to A+E immediately.
SIDE-EFFECTS OF DTAP/HIB AND IPV AS STATED BY MANUFACTURERS:
Pain in 35% of recipients, 5% decreased appetite and spitting up feeds, up to 38% of recipients with temperatures over 38.1 degrees, GBS (Guillain-Barre Syndrome) has been temporally associated with the administration of IPV vaccine. (8).
There are fewer local (minor) reactions associated with DTaP as opposed to whole cell DPT. Crying for longer than 1 hour after vaccination occurred in 11.8% of babies who received DPT and in 1.7% of babies who received DTaP. Persistent crying lasting more than 3 hours occurred in 8.9% of the DPT group and 1.16% of the DTaP group.
Rates of serious events are not known at this time.
During the trial of this DTaP vaccine, 6 babies had convulsions following the injection (out of 4,670 babies to receive the jab which is slightly more than 1 in 1000) and in the whole cell DPT group there were 3 who suffered convulsions so it seems that acellular DPT makes no difference to the rates of severe reactions only to minor ones.
Hives, difficulty breathing and shock have been observed in preparations containing DPT. A few cases of peripheral neuropathy have been reported following administration of tetanus toxoid.
The following illnesses have been associated with vaccines containing tetanus toxoid: cochlear lesions, brachial plexus neuropathies, paralysis of the radial nerve, paralysis of the recurrent nerve, abnormal EEG readings with encephalopathy, infantile spasms, convulsions, persistent inconsolable crying.
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME HAS OCCURRED IN INFANTS FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF DPT AND DTaP VACCINATIONS. (9).
2. Previous allergic reaction to any DPT/Hib containing vaccine.
3. Allergy to antibiotics or any of the other vaccine ingredients. (7).
4. A coagulation disorder there is a risk of haemorrhage if vaccinated.
5. Any neurological disorder.
6. Cancer and use of any immunosuppressive therapies such as chemotherapy or steroids.
7. DTaP has NOT been evaluated for its carcinogenic, mutagenic potential or its affect on fertility therefore they dont know whether it causes cancer, whether it can mutate into new viruses or whether it affects our childrens ability to have their own children.
8. It is not recommended for adults, anyone over the age of 7 years and babies under the age of 6 weeks. (9).
9. (For IPV) Respiratory infections.
11. Pregnant women (no studies have been done on the affect on the foetus). (8).
1. Bupa Health Information Team 12 August 2004.
2. ACIP Meeting, 20/06/96.
3. Albany Democrat-Herald, USA.
4. Vaccines Preservative Effects May Have Been Known Valeri Williams, WFAA-TV.
5. Mercury in Childhood Vaccines: What did the Government Know? Valeri Williams, WFAA-TV. 22/05/02 and Dr. Boyd Haley, University of Kentucky, USA.
6. Connaught Data Sheet for singular IPV vaccine.
7. Department of Health www.immunisation.nhs.uk
8. Ipol singular IPV vaccine manufacturers Data Sheet.
9. Daptacel DTaP vaccine Data Sheet Aventis Pasteur Limited. May 2002.
I have now found manufcturer's details for the 5-in-1 jab. Here are a list of current ingredients and side-effects:
PEDIACEL BLACK DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE (9660)
Suspension for Injection
Diphtheria, tetanus, five component acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed).
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION To the top of the page
Each 0.5 millilitre dose contains:
Purified diphtheria toxoid
not less than 30 international units* (15 Lf)
Purified tetanus toxoid
not less than 40 international units* (5 Lf)
Purified pertussis toxoid (PT)
Purified filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA)
Purified fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM)
Purified pertactin (PRN)
Inactivated type 1 poliovirus (Mahoney)
40 D antigen units**
Inactivated type 2 poliovirus (MEF-1)
8 D antigen units**
Inactivated type 3 poliovirus (Saukett)
32 D antigen units**
Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide
conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T)
For excipients, see 6.1.
* As lower confidence limit (p=0.95) of activity measured according to the assay described in the European Pharmacopoeia
** or equivalent antigenic quantity determined by a suitable immunochemical method.
Active components of the vaccine are inactivated with either formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde.
Inactivated poliovirus components are produced using the Vero cell line.
The Vero Cell line is tissue from the African Green Monkey.
Contraindications To the top of the page
PEDIACEL should not be given to children who:
Are known to be hypersensitive to any component of the vaccine (including neomycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B which may be present in trace amounts).
Have had a previous severe local or general reaction to this vaccine or to any other vaccine that contains one or more of the antigenic components.
Have experienced encephalopathy (e.g., coma, decreased level of consciousness, prolonged seizures) within 7 days of a previous dose of a pertussis-containing vaccine that is not attributable to another identifiable cause.
Have a progressive neurologic disorder, uncontrolled epilepsy, or progressive encephalopathy. Pertussis vaccine should not be administered to individuals with these common conditions until the treatment regimen has been established, the condition has stabilized, and the benefit clearly outweighs the risk.
Have a fever or acute severe systemic illness. In this case vaccination should be postponed until the child has recovered. Minor infections without fever or systemic upset are not reasons to postpone vaccination.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use To the top of the page
As with all vaccines, appropriate facilities and medication such as epinephrine (adrenaline) should be readily available for immediate use in case of anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity following injection.
If any of the following events are known to have occurred in temporal relation to a previous dose of a pertussis-containing vaccine, the decision to give further doses of pertussis-containing vaccines should be carefully considered:
Temperature of GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8805)40°C within 48 hours, not due to another identifiable cause.
Hypotonic hyporesponsive episode (HHE): a syndrome characterised by acute diminution of sensory awareness or loss of consciousness, accompanied by pallor and muscle hypotonicity. The onset is usually 1-12 hours after vaccination and the episode may last from a few minutes up to 36 hours. Recovery is complete with no persistent sequelae.
Persistent, inconsolable crying lasting more than 3 hours occurring within 48 hours of vaccination.
Convulsions with or without fever occurring within 3 days of vaccination.
In children with a progressive, evolving or unstable neurological condition (including seizures), immunisation should be deferred until the condition is corrected or stable.
The immunogenicity of the vaccine may be reduced by immunosuppressive treatment or immunodeficiency. It is recommended to postpone vaccination until the end of such treatment or the resolution of disease. Nevertheless, vaccination of subjects with chronic immunodeficiency (such as those with HIV infection or on long-term immunosuppressive therapy) is recommended even though the immunological response may be impaired and the degree of protection may be limited.
Intramuscular injections should be given with care in patients with thrombocytopenia or bleeding disorders due to the risk of haemorrhage.
The vaccine should be given intramuscularly since subcutaneous administration increases the chances of an injection site reaction. Do not administer by intradermal or intravenous injection.
If Guillain-Barré syndrome or brachial neuritis has occurred following receipt of prior vaccine containing tetanus toxoid, the decision to give any vaccine containing tetanus toxoid should be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and possible risks, such as whether or not the primary immunization schedule has been completed.
PEDIACEL does not protect against infectious diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae other than type b, or against meningitis caused by other organisms.
As with any vaccine, immunisation with PEDIACEL may not protect all recipients from the infections that it is intended to prevent.
Applicable official recommendations for childhood immunisations should be consulted before administering this vaccine to children in or after the second year of life since this exact combination of antigens may not be considered appropriate and/or necessary after completion of the infant immunisation series.
The potential risk of apnoea and the need for respiratory monitoring for 48-72h should be considered when administering the primary immunization series to very premature infants (born LESS-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8804) 28 weeks of gestation) and particularly for those with a previous history of respiratory immaturity. As the benefit of vaccination is high in this group of infants, vaccination should not be withheld or delayed.
In controlled clinical studies performed with PEDIACEL, 71% of 451 infants immunised at 2, 4 and 6 months experienced a reaction (pain, erythema or oedema) at the injection site within the first 24 hours after vaccination. In 16% of infants the reaction was of moderate to severe intensity. Also, 64% of infants experienced a systemic reaction, which was of moderate to severe intensity in 16%.
There was a trend for an increased frequency of injection site reactions when a fourth dose of PEDIACEL was given to 401 children in the second year of life. Pain was reported in 33%, erythema in 23% and oedema in 16% compared to rates of 18%, 11% and 11%, respectively, during the primary series. The frequency of systemic reactions was similar whether PEDIACEL was administered in infancy or in the second year of life.
The reactions observed were as follows:
Nervous system disorders
Hypotonic hyporesponsive episodes (HHE) (see section 4.4).
Anorexia, diarrhoea and vomiting.
General disorders and administration site conditions
Very common (>10%):
Pain, erythema and oedema at the injection site.
Irritability, malaise, increased crying and fever.
Very rare (<0.01%):
High fever (>40.5°C).
Unusual high-pitched or inconsolable crying.
Extensive limb swelling.
Large injection site reactions (>50 mm), including extensive limb swelling from the injection site beyond one or both joints, have been reported following administration of acellular-pertussis contained in PEDIACEL. These reactions start within 24-72 hours after vaccination, may be associated with erythema, warmth, tenderness or pain at the injection site and resolve spontaneously within 3-5 days. The risk appeared to be dependent on the number of prior doses of acellular pertussis containing vaccine, with a greater risk following the 4th and 5th doses.
In a controlled clinical study of PEDIACEL, administered concomitantly with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, 71% of 121 infants immunised at 2, 3 and 4 months experienced a reaction (pain, erythema or oedema) at the PEDIACEL injection site within the first seven days after vaccination. Also, 92% of infants experienced a systemic reaction within the first seven days after vaccination. The rates of moderate to severe reactions were similar to those described at 2, 4 and 6 months.
Acute allergic reactions have been reported after diphtheria, tetanus and/or pertussis vaccines. Manifestations include dyspnoea, cyanosis, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, hypotension and, rarely, anaphylaxis.
A persistent nodule at the site of vaccination may occur with all adsorbed vaccines, particularly if administered into the superficial layers of the subcutaneous tissue. Rarely aseptic abscesses have been reported.
Oedematous reaction affecting one or both lower limbs may occur following vaccination with Haemophilus Influenza type b containing vaccines. If this reaction occurs, it does so mainly after primary injections and is observed within the first few hours following vaccination. Associated symptoms may include cyanosis, redness, transient purpura and severe crying. All events resolve spontaneously without sequelae within 24 hours.
Data from Post Marketing Surveillance
Based on spontaneous reporting, the following additional adverse events have been reported during the commercial use of PEDIACEL. These events have been very rarely reported (<0.01%); however, the exact incidence rates cannot precisely be calculated.
Nervous system disorders
General disorders and administration site conditions
Additional Information on Special Populations
Apnoea in very premature infants (LESS-THAN OR EQUAL TO (8804)28 weeks of gestation). (See section 4.4.)
List of excipients To the top of the page
Water for Injections.
Source: Sanofi Pasteur manufacturer's data sheet for DTaP/IPV/HIB vaccine, dated 4th September 2008.
Sanofi Pasteur MSD Limited
General practitioner consultation data were used to compare the reactogenicity in infants of a 5-in-1 acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP5/Hib/IPV) introduced in the United Kingdom in 2004 to the 4-in-1 whole cell-pertussis vaccine (DTwP/Hib) that it replaced. For each vaccine the incidence in the week following vaccination was compared to other periods to obtain a relative incidence. A lower relative incidence of crying, fever and local reactions was seen with DTaP5/Hib/IPV than DTwP/Hib. Although there were no other significant differences between vaccines the relative incidence was significantly above one on the day of vaccination for convulsions following DTwP/Hib and for apnoea/collapse following DTaP5/Hib/IPV.
Source: Vaccine,Volume 28, Issue 44, 18 October 2010, Pages 7215-7220.
The whooping cough vaccine given to babies and toddlers loses much of its effectiveness after just three years -- a lot faster than doctors believed -- and that could help explain a recent series of U.S. outbreaks among children who were fully vaccinated, a study suggests.
The study is small and preliminary, and its authors said the results need to be confirmed through more research. Nevertheless, the findings are likely to stir debate over whether children should get a booster shot earlier than now recommended.
"I was disturbed to find maybe we had a little more confidence in the vaccine than it might deserve," said the lead researcher, David Witt, chief of infectious disease at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in San Rafael, Calif. Dr. Witt presented his findings Monday at a conference in Chicago.
The study was done in California, where whooping cough vaccinations are a hot-button issue. The state had a huge spike in whooping cough cases last year, during which more than 9,100 people fell ill and 10 babies died. California schools have turned away thousands of middle and high school students this fall who haven't gotten their booster shot.
Government health officials recommend that children get vaccinated against whooping cough in five doses, with the first shot at age 2 months and the final one between 4 and 6 years. Then youngsters are supposed to get a booster shot around 11 or 12. That means a gap of five to eight years.
Dr. Witt's study looked at roughly 15,000 children in Marin County, Calif., including 132 who got whooping cough last year. He found that youngsters who had gone three years or more since the last of their five original shots were as much as 20 times more likely to become infected than children who had been more recently vaccinated.
Read more: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/11263/1176014-114-0.stm#ixzz1dKvC1AXN
TWENTY years ago, Sue and Stephen Ferris welcomed a baby girl into the world.
The couple lived in Canberra when little Laura Ferris joined her brother Mark, now 22. Two years later Joanna, 18, arrived.
However, Sue Ferris said she and her husband lost the bright and bubbly toddler they once knew after an haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) meningitis vaccination, and watched her become a stranger affected by childhood disintegrative disorder, which is within the category of autism spectrum disorders.
While a 1998 study that linked the triple MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine and autism, undertaken by UK doctor Andrew Wakefield, was announced as a fraud earlier this month, Mrs Ferris believes Wakefield was in fact on the right track.
"Whether he is right or wrong he (Andrew Wakefield) is one doctor who has said vaccines could be a problem," Mrs Ferris said from Deloraine this week.
"It wasn't the MMR that damaged our daughter, she regressed after an HIB meningitis vaccine.
"Laura had a period of normal development (just more than two years) before a major regression, where she had the behavioural issues.
"We noticed a change in Laura within two days of the vaccine.
"While the HIB vaccine appeared to be the one that threw Laura, she had a history of chronic skin problems and oral thrush, which when we looked back over her medical history, all seemed to occur just after a vaccine."
Laura's parents questioned two doctors over the safety of the vaccine given Laura's skin problems, but they both assured the Ferrises it was completely safe.
They began to look for answers for the apparent connection between their daughter's regression and the vaccine.
"The more we found the more we didn't like," Mrs Ferris revealed.
Source: The Advocate, 20 January 2011 - http://www.theadvocate.com.au/news/local/news/general/family-convinced-vaccine-took-away-their-daughter/2052337.aspx?mid=52
Context Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussisinactivated poliovirus Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002.
Objective To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months.
Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based cohort study of 378 834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort.
Main Outcome Measures Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study.
Results A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100 000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100 000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100 000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100 000 person-days), 12 children after the second (5.7 per 100 000 person-days), and 27 children after the third (13.1 per 100 000 person-days) vaccinations. The relative incidences from the SCCS study design were similar to the cohort study design. Within 7 years of follow-up, 131 unvaccinated children and 2117 vaccinated children were diagnosed with epilepsy, 813 diagnosed between 3 and 15 months (2.4 per 1000 person-years) and 1304 diagnosed later in life (1.3 per 1000 person-years). After vaccination, children had a lower risk of epilepsy between 3 and 15 months (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.79) and a similar risk for epilepsy later in life (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.66-1.56) vs unvaccinated children.
Conclusions DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures on the day of the first 2 vaccinations given at 3 and 5 months, although the absolute risk was small. Vaccination with DTaP-IPV-Hib was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy.
Source: JAMA, 2012;307(8):823-831.
The article presents comparative study of the incidence of adverse effects following vaccinations with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines, based on data collected in obligatory routine surveillance of AEFI in the period of 2001-2005 in Poland. Comparisons done in children less then 2-years-old show in general about twice as high incidence of adverse effects following the whole-cell than the acellular vaccine. The biggest rate of proportions (RR = 4,75) was observed for high pitch cry. There was no significant difference in incidence of the most severe reactions, including encephalopathy and nonfebrile seizures, and there was no significant difference in allergic reactions.
Source: Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62(3):589-96 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19108523
The recent resurgence in cases of Bordetella pertussis, or whooping cough, may be caused by vaccinated people who are infectious but do not display symptoms, according to recent study data in BMC Medicine.
“An acellular B. pertussis vaccine which blocks symptomatic disease but not asymptomatic transmission is able to account for the observed increase in B. pertussis incidence; complicates situational awareness surrounding levels of current B. pertussis transmission; and potentially biases estimates of vaccine efficacy obtained from case data,” study researchers Benjamin M. Althouse, PhD, ScM, and Samuel V. Scarpino, PhD, both of Santa Fe Institute, wrote.
The researchers analyzed the incident rate of B. pertussis in the United States and United Kingdom. They compared this data with analysis of 36 genome sequence isolates of B. pertussis, gathered between 1935 and 2005, to support evidence of asymptomatic transmission.
Results showed that the timing of age-specific infection rates were consistent with asymptomatic transmission. Asymptomatic transmission also was apparent in the observed cases because the genetic diversity of the bacterial population was too high for the rate of symptomatic infections.
“There could be millions of people out there with just a minor cough or no cough spreading this potentially fatal disease without knowing it,” Althouse said in a press release. “The public health community should act now to better assess the true burden of pertussis infection.”
The investigators said vaccinating individuals in proximity to patients too young for vaccination may be ineffective based on these findings. They suggested further research is required to determine the genetic diversity of B. pertussis and the incident rate of unvaccinated individuals.
“In light of current evidence and our results, we cannot dismiss the potential far-reaching epidemiological consequences of asymptomatic transmission of B. pertussis and an ineffective B. pertussis vaccine,” the researchers wrote. – by David Costill.
After administering pertussis toxin and other antigens to animals, researchers were able to autoimmune encephalomyelitis - the principle animal model for MS. From this testing of vaccines on animals, the researchers concluded that pertussis infection plays an important role in the etiology of MS.
The study is pro-vaccine and the author is developing a new pertussis vaccine, which may make the study biased. However, the pertussis that caused these symptoms in animals was genetically engineered, vaccine strain pertussis and not natural pertussis infection, so in the opinion of VAN UK the study only suggests that pertussis vaccine is a cause of MS.
The first case of MS was reported in 1943, after the introduction of mass vaccination.
It is established that (1) subclinical Bordetella pertussis colonization of the nasopharynx persists in highly vaccinated populations, and (2) B. pertussis toxin is a potent adjuvant that, when co-administered with neural antigens, induces neuropathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the principle animal model of multiple sclerosis. Building on these observations with supporting epidemiologic and biologic evidence, we propose that, contrary to conventional wisdom that subclinical pertussis infections are innocuous to hosts, B. pertussis colonization is an important cause of multiple sclerosis.
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